One way to dispose of waste is to burn it, which is actually the ignition of organic matter (carbonated) or pure matter. Incinerators and various other high temperature systems designed to dispose of waste are referred to as heat treatment systems. Incineration of waste materials, such as waste, turns them into ashes collected in the floor of the incinerator, flue gases, very fine particles and, most importantly, heat, which can be used to generate electricity. It should be noted that the pollution of the flue gases must be removed before discharging into the atmosphere.
The waste incineration process has tremendous benefits for handling certain types of waste in the right places. Among them, we can mention clinic waste and special hazardous waste that pathogens and toxins can be eliminated at high temperatures.
Waste incineration is especially common in countries such as Japan, where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden are pioneers in using energy produced from incinerators. This is done in centralized heat and power generation facilities and also provides district heating schemes. It should be noted that this work is more than a hundred years old in them.
In Denmark, in 2005, 4.8% of electricity consumption and 13.7% of total domestic heat consumption came from incinerators.
A number of other European countries rely heavily on the use of incinerators to deal with municipal waste. These include Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Germany and France.
Advanced incinerators have a pollution reduction device, including a flue gas cleaner. There are several types of waste incinerators, including mobile furnaces, fixed furnaces, rotary furnaces, and lubricants. A schematic view of a waste incinerator is shown in the figure below:
A key issue in the selection and design of incinerators is the calorific value of the materials to be incinerated. The calorific value of a substance is the amount of heat that is released during the combustion of a certain amount of matter. Determining the calorific value of waste according to the type of waste is the first and most important step to start the design process of a waste incinerator system. Important parameters affecting the calorific value of waste are physical composition, moisture and chemical composition. The following are the specifications of the incinerator designed by Arman Group:
Waste incinerator capacity: 200 tons per day
Useful energy of waste: 350422 kWh
Generable electricity: 175211 kWh
Filter ash: 5 ton / day
Solid ash: 50 ton / day
Numerous technical and economic advantages of waste power plants are relatively low investment costs (compared to other renewable energy production methods); In addition, the very low production of environmental pollutants are all attractions of the increasing use of this technology in various countries, especially industrialized countries.